Ammonia water is one of nitrogen fertilizers produced from synthetic ammonia and dissolved in water. It looks like a transparent liquid and sometimes it can have a yellowish tint with a pungent odor. Ammonia water and other types of liquid nitrogen fertilizers are used as a basic fertilizer for all crops.
Physical and chemical properties
Ammonia water contains 30% of ammonia, i.e. 24.6% of nitrogen and 70% of water. Being exposed to the temperature not less than +21.10 ° and high arterial pressure it slightly increases in bulk. One liter of water ammonium weighs 888 grams and contains 220 g of nitrogen.
The contact of ammonia water with ferrous metals (zinc, tin and copper) and their alloys (brass, bronze) causes corrosion. However, cast iron, aluminum and rubber are resistant to ammonia water. Ammonia water is a good because it does not lose nitrogen during transportation, storage and use.
Application of ammonia water
Ammonia water is of two brands:
– For various industries;
– For agriculture as a nitrogen fertilizer.
Ammonia water is mainly used in the fall and spring for preplant farming and feeding cultivated crops.
Ammonia water is used in the chemical industry for the production of other nitrogen fertilizers, nitric acid, polymers, soda, explosives, the manufacture of dyes and ferro-alloys. 10% concentration ammonia water is known as the ammonia, which is widely used in medicine.
Behaviour in soil
When ammonia water enters the soil, the ammonia is adsorbed first and then ammonium nitrogen nitrification occurs, it acquires a high degree of mobility and migrates from soil solution. Application of ammonia water increases the number of microorganisms in the soil, because ammonia increases the amount of residues on which they feed. At first immediately after fertilizing the soil, a decrease in microorganisms is observed, and after the conversion of ammonia to nitrates (it takes six weeks in spring) bacteria begin to multiply rapidly.
Ammonia water also kills earthworms. However, their number is quickly restored and even increased after the conversion of ammonia to nitrates or absorption by plants.
Calendar of applying substance to the soil:
April – the main fertilizer;
May – the preplant fertilizer;
June – feeding;
July – feeding;
August – feeding;
September – the main fertilizer.
The use of ammonia water on different soils
Ammonia water is recommended for use on all types of soils. High efficiency of the fertilizer is observed in heavy and well-treated soils where ammonia is absorbed better than in light and poor in hummus soils. It should be noted that ammonia evaporates faster from light and dry soils.
The greatest effect of the use of ammonia water is observed while applying it with organic fertilizers. It is not recommended to use ammonia fertilizer in one place for several years in a row because it leads to a decrease in humus content in the soil.
The use of ammonia water
As a liquid nitrogen fertilizer, ammonium water is used with deep penetration in ground arrays. Ammonium water is pulverized from a special machine to provide immediate sealing of the fertilizer to the depth of at least 10-12 cm in the dark and 14-18 cm in light soils. This depth prevents evaporation of ammonia. Some losses are possible in calcareous soils with alkaline reaction.
It is not acceptable to introduce ammonia water on the surface with a small sealed dry top layer of soil.
The impact on crops
Ammonia water is a major source of nitrogen for plants because they can best absorb nitrates and ammonium salts from it. Ammonia from the ammonia water is easily absorbed into the soil, thus making it available for plants to feed on cations ammonia and nitrate ions.
Application of ammonia water in the vegetative period as the main fertilizer provides plants with good nutrition during the period of their maximum activity. This ensures stable yields of crops. Besides it improves the quality of production, preserves and restores the soil fertility.
Despite the fact that the content of ammonia in the substance is not very high, ammonia water has a positive effect on plants. It is due to the fact that it is absorbed much better and faster.